# What’s new?¶

This page gives some of the key improvements in each galpy
version. See the `HISTORY.txt`

file in the galpy source for full
details on what is new and different in each version.

## v1.6¶

This version mainly consists of changes to the internal functioning of
`galpy`

; some of the new outward-facing features are:

- ChandrasekharDynamicalFrictionForce is now implemented in C, leading to 100x to 1000x speed-ups for orbit integrations using dynamical friction compared to the prior pure-Python version.
- New potentials:
- HomogeneousSpherePotential: the potential of a constant density sphere out to some radius R.
- DehnenSphericalPotential: the Dehnen Spherical Potential from Dehnen (1993).
- DehnenCoreSphericalPotential: the Dehnen Spherical Potential from (Dehnen 1993) with alpha=0 (corresponding to an inner core).

- Some notable internal changes:
- Fixed a bug in how
`DiskSCFPotential`

instances are passed to C for orbit integration that in particular affected the`McMillan17`

Milky-Way potential (any hole in the surface density was effectively ignored in the C code in v1.5). - The performance of orbit animations is significantly improved.
- All main galpy C extensions are now compiled into a single
shared-object library
`libgalpy`

. - Binary wheels are now automatically built for Windows, Mac, and
most major Linux distributions upon every push to the
`master`

branch and these are automatically uploaded to PyPI upon release. See the Installation Instructions for more info. Binary wheels on Windows are also built for every push on AppVeyor, see the Windows installation instructions.

- Fixed a bug in how

## v1.5¶

This version will be the last to support Python 2.7 as this version of Python is reaching end-of-life on January 1 2020.

- This version’s highlight is a fully re-written implementation of
`galpy.orbit.Orbit`

such that it can now contain and manipulate multiple objects at once.`galpy.orbit.Orbit`

can be initialized with an arbitrary shape of input objects in a variety of ways, manipulated in a manner similar to Numpy arrays, and all`Orbit`

methods work efficiently on`Orbit`

instances containing multiple objects. Some methods, such as orbit integration and those for fast orbital characterization are parallelized on multi-core machines.`Orbit`

instances can contain and manipulate millions of objects simultaneously now. - Added the
`galpy.potentials.mwpotentials`

module with various Milky-Way-like potentials. Currently included are MWPotential2014, McMillan17 for the potential from McMillan (2017), models 1 through 4 from Dehnen & Binney (1998), and the three models from Irrgang et al. (2013). See this section of the API documentation for details. - Added a (JSON) list with the phase-space coordinates of known objects (mainly Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf galaxies) for easy Orbit.from_name initialization. For ease of use, Orbit.from_name also supports tab completion for known objects in this list in IPython/Jupyter.
- Added
`galpy.potential.to_amuse`

to create an AMUSE representation of any galpy potential, allowing galpy potentials to be used as external gravitational fields in AMUSE N-body simulations. - New or improved potentials and potential wrappers:
- MovingObjectPotential: Re-wrote
`potential.MovingObjectPotential`

to allow general mass distributions for the moving object, implemented now as standard galpy potentials. Also added a C implementation of this potential for fast orbit integration. - IsothermalDiskPotential: The one-dimensional potential of an isothermal self-gravitating disk (sech^2 profile).
- NumericalPotentialDerivativesMixin: a Mixin class to add numerically-computed forces and second derivatives to any Potential class, allowing new potentials to be implmented quickly by only implementing the potential itself and obtaining all forces and second derivatives numerically.
- DehnenSmoothWrapperPotential: Can now decay rather than grow a potential by setting
`decay=True`

. - Added support to combine Potential instances or lists thereof through the addition operator. E.g.,
`pot= pot1+pot2+pot3`

to create the combined potential of the three component potentials (pot1,pot2,pot3). Each of these components can be a combined potential itself. As before, combined potentials are simply lists of potentials, so this is simply an alternative (and perhaps more intuitive) way to create these lists. - Added support to adjust the amplitude of a Potential instance through multiplication of the instance by a number or through division by a numer. E.g.,
`pot= 2.*pot1`

returns a Potential instance that is the same as pot1, except that the amplitude is twice larger. Similarly,`pot= pot1/2.`

decreases the amplitude by a factor of two. This is useful, for example, to quickly change the mass of a potential. Only works for Potential instances, not for lists of Potential instances.

- MovingObjectPotential: Re-wrote
- New or improved
`galpy.orbit.Orbit`

functionality and methods:- Added support for 1D orbit integration in C.
- Added support to plot arbitrary combinations of the basic Orbit attributes by giving them as an expresion (e.g.,
`orb.plot(d2='vR*R/r+vz*z/r')`

); requires the numexpr package. - Switched default Sun’s vertical height zo parameter for Orbit initialization to be the value of 20.8 pc from Bennett & Bovy (2019).
- Add Python and C implementation of Dormand-Prince 8(5,3) integrator.

## v1.4¶

- Added dynamical friction as the ChandrasekharDynamicalFrictionForce class, an implementation of dynamical friction based on the classical Chandrasekhar formula (with recent tweaks from the literature to better represent the results from N-body simulations).
- A general
`EllipsoidalPotential`

superclass for implementing potentials with densities that are constant on ellipsoids (functions of \(m^2 = x^2 + y^2/b^2 + z^2/c^2\)). Also implemented in C. Implementing new types of ellipsoidal potentials now only requires three simple functions to be defined: the density as a function of m, its derivative with respect to m, and its integral with respect to m^2. Makes implementing any ellipsoidal potential a breeze. See examples in the new-potentials section below. - New or improved potentials and potential wrappers:
- CorotatingRotationWrapperPotential: wrapper to make a pattern (e.g., a SpiralArmsPotential) wind up over time such that it is always corotating (see Hunt et al. (2018) for an example of this).
- GaussianAmplitudeWrapperPotential: wrapper to modulate the amplitude of a (list of)
`Potential`

(s) with a Gaussian. - PerfectEllipsoidPotential: Potential of a perfect triaxial ellipsoid (de Zeeuw 1985).
- SphericalShellPotential: Potential of a thin, spherical shell.
- RingPotential: Potential of a circular ring.
- Re-implemented
`TwoPowerTriaxialPotential`

,`TriaxialHernquistPotential`

,`TriaxialJaffePotential`

, and`TriaxialNFWPotential`

using the general`EllipsoidalPotential`

class.

- New
`Potential`

methods and functions:- Use nested lists of
`Potential`

instances wherever lists of`Potential`

instances can be used. Allows easy adding of components (e.g., a bar) to previously defined potentials (which may be lists themselves): new_pot= [pot,bar_pot]. - rtide and ttensor: compute the tidal radius of an object and the full tidal tensor.
- surfdens method and evaluateSurfaceDensities function to evaluate the surface density up to a given z.
- r2deriv and evaluater2derivs: 2nd derivative wrt spherical radius.
- evaluatephi2derivs: second derivative wrt phi.
- evaluateRphiderivs: mixed (R,phi) derivative.

- Use nested lists of
- New or improved
`galpy.orbit.Orbit`

functionality and methods:- Orbit.from_name to initialize an
`Orbit`

instance from an object’s name. E.g.,`orb= Orbit.from_name('LMC')`

. - Orbit initialization without arguments is now the orbit of the Sun.
- Orbits can be initialized with a SkyCoord.
- Default
`solarmotion=`

parameter is now ‘schoenrich’ for the Solar motion of Schoenrich et al. (2010). - rguiding: Guiding-center radius.
- Lz: vertical component of the angular momentum.
- If astropy version > 3, Orbit.SkyCoord method returns a SkyCoord object that includes the velocity information and the Galactocentric frame used by the Orbit instance.

- Orbit.from_name to initialize an
`galpy.df.jeans`

module with tools for Jeans modeling. Currently only contains the functions sigmar and sigmalos to calculate the velocity dispersion in the radial or line-of-sight direction using the spherical Jeans equation in a given potential, density profile, and anisotropy profile (anisotropy can be radially varying).- Support for compilation on Windows with MSVC.

## v1.3¶

- A fast and precise method for approximating an orbit’s eccentricity, peri- and apocenter radii, and maximum height above the midplane using the Staeckel approximation (see Mackereth & Bovy 2018). Can determine these parameters to better than a few percent accuracy in as little as 10 \(\mu\mathrm{s}\) per object, more than 1,000 times faster than through direct orbit integration. See this section of the documentation for more info.
- A general method for modifying
`Potential`

classes through potential wrappers—simple classes that wrap existing potentials to modify their behavior. See this section of the documentation for examples and this section for information on how to easily define new wrappers. Example wrappers include SolidBodyRotationWrapperPotential to allow*any*potential to rotate as a solid body and DehnenSmoothWrapperPotential to smoothly grow*any*potential. See this section of the galpy.potential API page for an up-to-date list of wrappers. - New or improved potentials:
- DiskSCFPotential: a general Poisson solver well suited for galactic disks
- Bar potentials SoftenedNeedleBarPotential and FerrersPotential (latter only in Python for now)
- 3D spiral arms model SpiralArmsPotential
- Henon & Heiles (1964) potential HenonHeilesPotential
- Triaxial version of LogarithmicHaloPotential
- 3D version of DehnenBarPotential
- Generalized version of CosmphiDiskPotential

- New or improved
`galpy.orbit.Orbit`

methods:- Method to display an animation of an integrated orbit in jupyter notebooks: Orbit.animate. See this section of the documentation.
- Improved default method for fast calculation of eccentricity, zmax, rperi, rap, actions, frequencies, and angles by switching to the Staeckel approximation with automatically-estimated approximation parameters.
- Improved plotting functions: plotting of spherical radius and of arbitrary user-supplied functions of time in Orbit.plot, Orbit.plot3d, and Orbit.animate.

`actionAngleStaeckel`

upgrades:`actionAngleStaeckel`

methods now allow for different focal lengths delta for different phase-space points and for the order of the Gauss-Legendre integration to be specified (default: 10, which is good enough when using actionAngleStaeckel to compute approximate actions etc. for an axisymmetric potential).- Added an option to the estimateDeltaStaeckel function to facilitate the return of an estimated delta parameter at every phase space point passed, rather than returning a median of the estimate at each point.

- galpy.df.schwarzschilddf:the simple Schwarzschild distribution function for a razor-thin disk (useful for teaching).

## v1.2¶

- Full support for providing inputs to all initializations, methods, and functions as astropy Quantity with units and for providing outputs as astropy Quantities.
`galpy.potential.TwoPowerTriaxialPotential`

, a set of triaxial potentials with iso-density contours that are arbitrary, similar, coaxial ellipsoids whose ‘radial’ density is a (different) power-law at small and large radii: 1/m^alpha/(1+m)^beta-alpha (the triaxial generalization of TwoPowerSphericalPotential, with flattening in the density rather than in the potential; includes triaxial Hernquist and NFW potentials.`galpy.potential.SCFPotential`

, a class that implements general density/potential pairs through the basis expansion approach to solving the Poisson equation of Hernquist & Ostriker (1992). Also implemented functions to compute the coefficients for a given density function. See more explanation here.`galpy.actionAngle.actionAngleTorus`

: an experimental interface to Binney & McMillan’s TorusMapper code for computing positions and velocities for given actions and angles. See the installation instructions for how to properly install this. See this section and the`galpy.actionAngle`

API page for documentation.`galpy.actionAngle.actionAngleIsochroneApprox`

(Bovy 2014) now implemented for the general case of a time-independent potential.`galpy.df.streamgapdf`

, a module for modeling the effect of a dark-matter subhalo on a tidal stream. See Sanders et al. (2016). Also includes the fast methods for computing the density along the stream and the stream track for a perturbed stream from Bovy et al. (2016).`Orbit.flip`

can now flip the velocities of an orbit in-place by specifying`inplace=True`

. This allows correct velocities to be easily obtained for backwards-integrated orbits.`galpy.potential.PseudoIsothermalPotential`

, a standard pseudo-isothermal-sphere potential.`galpy.potential.KuzminDiskPotential`

, a razor-thin disk potential.- Internal transformations between equatorial and Galactic coordinates are now performed by default using astropy’s coordinates module. Transformation of (ra,dec) to Galactic coordinates for general epochs.

## v1.1¶

- Full support for Python 3.
`galpy.potential.SnapshotRZPotential`

, a potential class that can be used to get a frozen snapshot of the potential of an N-body simulation.- Various other potentials:
`PlummerPotential`

, a standard Plummer potential;`MN3ExponentialDiskPotential`

, an approximation to an exponential disk using three Miyamoto-Nagai potentials (Smith et al. 2015);`KuzminKutuzovStaeckelPotential`

, a Staeckel potential that can be used to approximate the potential of a disk galaxy (Batsleer & Dejonghe 1994). - Support for converting potential parameters to NEMO format and units.
- Orbit fitting in custom sky coordinates.